A chair with a comfortable soft backrest has been used by people for centuries. Centuries have changed and changing fashion has brought its touches to the appearance of furniture. The chair has changed most of all in the twentieth century. The modern product has many different modifications, which you will learn about in this article.
Designers of upholstered furniture spend a lot of time to create new forms and improve the functionality of mechanisms. We will tell you about different parameters and basic modifications of chairs.
In the last century, the notion of “ergonomics” first appeared. This term is one of the parameters of furniture and indicates its conformity with human anatomy. The backrests and armrests of upholstered furniture have been modified to adapt to our posture. External appeal has been combined with functionality and practicality.
The first chair representatives had a rectangular design. They had a straight and soft backrest as well as wide armrests. Over the years, this design has remained the same. In today’s world, everything has changed.
Style solutions coincide with well-known design solutions. Armchairs are made in such styles as:
Recliners with a soft backrest
The main distinguishing feature of this piece of furniture is a soft and comfortable backrest. It can be in different shapes: curved, straight, low, high – there are many options. The most popular of them are:
a comfortable and soft backrest – this chair should make you feel comfortable. Great attention is paid to the upholstery material and filler. The backrest is usually of medium size. The furniture has massive armrests;
armchair-bathroom – the structure has an original look and is an armrest that fits smoothly into the low backrest. The legs of the chair are deep under the seat. The upholstery material is leather or textiles;
high backrest – a product with a high backrest has a small seat area. What armrests will be like – depends on the specific model. They can be both hard and soft. Usually, such models are placed in cabinets and libraries;
low backrest – in most cases these products have rigid armrests, which are made of bent plywood. Such furniture is often placed in interiors in the art nouveau style;
winged chair – the backrest of such chairs is high, the armrests have a curved shape, the front legs are twisted. It has a decorative accent – the buttons, buried in the upholstery.
It should also be noted designer furniture, which is made by famous designers of Europe. Among them are Robert Caner, Milo Boman, Hans Wegner, and others. These people have made a huge contribution to the development of furniture that decorates modern interiors.
Making conclusions, you can notice that the range of furniture has undergone major changes over the past twenty years. A lot of new models and interesting designs have appeared. In today’s market there are many manufacturers from different countries, and domestic craftsmen have joined them.
Browned pieces of shish kebab, juicy steaks, baked vegetables and fried fish with a slight “smoke” flavor can delight even the most sophisticated gourmet. Without these dishes it is difficult to imagine a trip to a country house, a picnic in the countryside or a holiday in a country house. But to please guests with perfectly cooked food, you will need a reliable helper – coal grill.
Advantages and disadvantages of grilling on coals
The charcoal grill, as the name implies, heats up and functions like a regular grill – thanks to the hot coals that give the heat. But that’s where the similarities come to an end. Unlike the charcoal grill, it has a lid that drastically changes its characteristics. So, for example, the charcoal grill allows:
to cook in any weather;
to use some of them as a stove;
maintain a high temperature for many hours and save coal;
grill any food evenly and quickly, reducing the usual cooking time by two to three times.
If we are talking about grills, we must not forget that there are other types – electric and gas. Why did we choose coal? Unlike the electric “brother”, it does not require a power supply, which means it can be used anywhere. As for the gas analogue, coal grill is much more compact as it does not need fuel cylinders.
The gas grill is easy to prepare: just a few minutes and the device is completely ready to roast any dish – coal requires ignition and heating for 20-25 minutes. But this does not scare off fans of traditional grilling on coals, because its main advantage is the unique smell of smoke in the food cooked on “live” fire.
Cleaning the charcoal grill is a bit more difficult than other types of grill, but you won’t feel this flaw if you choose a quality device, such as a ceramic one, which does not burn the leftovers of food. The use of special Kamado charcoal eliminates problems with ash, as it burns almost completely without contaminating the device.
Cooking food on coals is known to be one of the oldest ways to get tasty and nutritious food. The closest “relative” of the modern charcoal grill is not the usual for Russians charcoal grill, but Japanese kamado clay oven, which has existed for several millennia.
How to choose a charcoal grill?
There is no universal recipe for the perfect charcoal grill – it’s important to find the one that’s right for you. But what is worth paying attention to and what parameters do I have to decide to buy a charcoal grill?
Would you like to open your own restaurant and offer you charcoal dishes? Or maybe you regularly gather a large group of friends at your cottage or at home? Large charcoal grills allow you to easily cook impressive amounts of food, which will be enough to treat 15-30 people. For a family of two or four, you can limit yourself to a medium sized unit, especially if you don’t have enough room for a large one. The smallest models are designed for one or two delicious meals and can be placed on a small area near a townhouse, veranda or even on a balcony. They are also often bought for travel and outings, as they are compact and easy to put in the trunk and carry in your bag.
The shape of the device can be very different: ovoid, like the legendary Big Green Egg, or innovative ceramic – Kamado Joe, rounded, like the classic American coal “grill barbecue” Weber, or ordinary rectangular. The first two variants are more popular, because they are much more economical and compact. These charcoal grills can be used as a smokehouse and oven: they retain heat much longer. You can cook in them over direct and indirect heat and not only excellent steaks, but also poultry, vegetable stew, pizza and all kinds of baking. In case of Kamado Joe you can cook several dishes thanks to the “Divide and conquer” culinary system.
To cook different dishes you need different temperatures: to fry sausages or vegetables is enough and 180°C, and to get a juicy and rougeful kebab you need a much higher “degree”. The temperature changes as in the oven by adjusting the airflow. In some grills it is also possible to adjust the grid height above the coals, which allows you to cook different foods at different temperatures at the same time (vegetables and steaks, for example). The boiler itself must keep warm for a long time – this is necessary for baking bread, cooking pilaf or boiled borscht with “smoke”. A heat-reflecting lid is another important advantage.
The convenience of ignition.
It is important that your unit has easy access to the coal tank and an adjustable air supply for convenient ignition, so choose a grill with controlled ventilation. For added convenience, you should use special ignition briquettes.
Boiler material and grilles
Traditionally, there are two types of grills on coals: steel and ceramic. And among the fans of the latter are not only fans of outdoor barbecues, but also famous chefs, for example, Alexei Zimin – editor-in-chief of the magazine “Eda”. Ceramic appliances keep heat better than metal ones. Grill grids are made of steel (the best are made of stainless steel) and cast iron. Their choice depends on the needs of the griller.
Note: This post is written with a help of Chris Cosentino. Chris is a professional chef and blogger at GrillFAQ.com website. You can follow him on Twitter @offalchris.
Choosing a refrigerator, first of all it is necessary to define its basic parameters: dimensions, volume and location of chambers, as well as the presence of defrosting system and additional functions.
Dimensions and type of installation
The average width of the fridge is 60 – 100 cm. For a small kitchen of 6 – 8 square meters. m will fit a model width of 60 – 65 cm, in a larger (from 12 square meters) will fit organically large fridge width of 80 cm.
Volume and location of cameras
Small fridges (up to 250 l) – single-chamber or with a freezer upstairs. This arrangement of the freezer brings a number of inconveniences, both for the user and for the cooling system itself. At each opening of a freezer cold will leave faster as cold air is heavier than warm air, therefore the compressor has to work in a more intensive mode.
Average refrigerators (250 to 350 litres) are tall enough, with the freezer compartment usually located in the lower part. Such refrigerators are more convenient, as the main chamber is at face level, so to get food from the lower shelves, you do not need to bend over to the floor every time.
Large refrigerators (from 350 l) can have several chambers to cool different categories of food. Such a choice is made by those families who keep many fresh fruits and vegetables as well as fresh meat and fish in the refrigerators. These fridges have different conditions for storing different foods in each chamber, and the odours of the foods in the separate chambers are not mixed.
In Side-by-Side fridges, the freezer compartment is located on the side of the fridge-freezer. These fridges are wider and are suitable only for a large kitchen.
French Door refrigerators have a freezing compartment at the bottom and two swing doors of the refrigerating compartment at the top. These fridges take up less space than Side-By-Side fridges, but have quite a large volume.
Refrigerators come with one and two compressors. As a rule, large refrigerators as well as Side-by-Side refrigerators are produced with two compressors. Having a second compressor allows you to cool food faster, using less energy and more efficiently maintain the temperature in each of the chambers.
In a single-compressor chiller, a change in temperature in one of the chambers leads to a change in the other. Because of this, if the temperature in the freezer compartment drops, the temperature in the refrigerator compartment will also drop and food can become spoiled. Such refrigerators are cheaper than two-compressor refrigerators, and the compressor produces its life more quickly because it cools both chambers simultaneously.
There are also models with an inverter motor. With it, the compressor works continuously, unlike the usual compressor, which is periodically on and off. The inverter motor has an extended service life and reduced noise level. The disadvantage of such refrigerators is their sensitivity to voltage drops. If there is a strong surge in voltage, the compressor may fail and it will have to be replaced.
Many refrigerator models have a drip defrost system or No Frost system.
In fridges with a drip defrost system, the ice on the back wall thaws naturally when the compressor stops working and flows through the opening at the bottom of the fridge into a special tray from where it evaporates. This is a simple and reliable way to defrost, but the freezer still has to be defrosted manually every 5 to 6 months.
Refrigerators with No Frost system are more complicated. On the back wall of the fridge there is a fan that circulates air inside the chamber, directing it to the evaporator. At a certain moment the heating element is switched on and ice from the evaporator defrosts and flows into a special tray. Thanks to the circulation, the air is cooled evenly and the temperature recovers more quickly after opening the door, allowing for longer storage of food. The drawbacks of such refrigerators are higher noise level and dryer air in the chambers, which will cause food to spoil more quickly in the open. Having a No Frost system slightly increases the cost of the fridge, but allows for better use of cold air inside the chambers and less compressor load.
The special label with energy efficiency class A to G is placed on large household appliances. It helps you understand how efficient and environmentally friendly your appliances are.
The letter A on a bright green background marks the most energy-efficient appliances. There are also additional classes A+, A++ are appliances whose energy efficiency is higher than that of class A.
The letters B, C, D, E, F and G – and the corresponding colours from light green to bright maroon – denote the other energy efficiency classes, the least economical of which is class G.
When buying a refrigerator, energy efficiency parameters are particularly important, as this appliance operates 24 hours a day. This or that class of energy efficiency of a refrigerator is calculated as a ratio of energy consumption of the appliance for a year to the standard consumption determined by research. Thus, if the refrigerator consumes 55% of the standard consumption, it is class A, up to 75% – class B, up to 95% – class C, up to 100% – D, up to 125% – F, and if more – then G. The refrigerator of A++ class consumes only 30% of electric power necessary for operation of the refrigerator of D class.
Expensive models have an ice generator and water cooler function. Water for such chillers is supplied from the water supply via a filter or manually filled. Fridges with a water cooler allow you to get chilled water from the tap in the refrigerator door at any time. Those who like to make cocktails will need an ice generator.
The area of freshness is a zone with a temperature of about 0 degrees. It helps to preserve fruits and vegetables as well as chilled meat and fish for longer. Many modern refrigerators have a display on the door that displays information about the current mode.
Super-freezing fridges will freeze chilled food in the freezer faster. Fast freezing of vegetables and berries will preserve vitamins and flavour of food.
An alarm for an open door will remind you to close the door with an audible alarm.
For parents with small children, there is a child protection function that locks the doors and the control panel of the fridge-freezer.
Kitchen furnishing is one of the most expensive parts of the repair. We suggest items that you can save on and things that are not exactly worth it.
Choose facades from chipboard and MDF
Natural materials are good but expensive. Budget substitutes often look just as good. Thus, MDF in veneer coating is quite suitable for classic kitchen or country style, and lacquered chipboard will fit into the minimalistic interior.
Make facades without glazing
Of course, doors with glazing and built-in lighting inside cabinets add coziness to the kitchen, make it easier, but to create a budget project will have to love the “deaf” facades. To avoid sacrificing style, give preference to light facades (for small kitchens) and glossy coverings that help make the room visually lighter.
Adjust to standard sizes
Any special tasks for assemblers and manufacturers will increase the price of the headset. You will have to give up trimming of corners, non-standard cabinet widths and try to make rational use of existing modules. To simplify your task, create a visual project in any simulation program. One of the simplest is SketchUp, and you can design your future kitchen with IKEA directly on the website.
Love the open shelves and order
Upper open shelves instead of blind cabinets are another way to a budget project. One nuance – to make them look beautiful, keep order and take care of storage, for example, buy the same cans for bulk products. You can also decorate open shelves with photos and flowers.
Look for a competent collector.
Try the next trick. Go to an expensive kitchen salon and draw a dream kitchen together with designers. Come on weekdays at lunchtime, usually when they have the least work to do.
Then go to the mass market with a printout of the project and a smile and look for the one you like most in the expensive salon. Make a project in a budget store. You will most likely be told that some items are not feasible, but the project can still be implemented with changes.
And then – look for an experienced assembler, preferably with recommendations. He will help you combine both projects where you need to – save money. Thus, retractable corner cabinets in budget kitchens (they are called magic corners) are often not made at all, and in an expensive salon, their cost with all the fittings is tens of thousands of rubles (full price of some kitchens). Make a wardrobe to order – will come out cheaper, and fit it into a budget kitchen just to help a competent collector.
Give up on the built-in appliances
It is believed that by removing the built-in appliances, you will make the kitchen less comfortable. We don’t think so. A hob is a maximum worth going for in the fight for budget and style at the same time. The built-in fridge will already lead to the cost of the kitchen in times, and if there is also a microwave and other small appliances – even in 2-3 hundred thousand will be difficult to fit.
You can make a compromise if you have a competent collector. Budget kitchens do not have a stove and microwave at eye level, but you can separately order the frame, doors, cut off unnecessary centimeters and embed appliances.
Choose wood or plastic worktops
Natural stone is expensive, quality quartz agglomerates and artificial acrylic stones too, and work on them is more expensive even with natural materials.
You’ll have to save money and choose. The chipboard worktops can last a long time if they are primed and the joints are sealed. Wood is not an option for the lazy. It will have to be periodically soaked in oil, but as a reward, it will last longer and maintain its aesthetic appearance.